Make your own free website on
Biology Cell Class Project


A-Semipermeable Membranes
C- Cells and Viruses
D- Molecular Biology
E- E.R. and Golgo Appartus
F- Photosynthesis
G- Mitochondria
H- Macromolecules
I- Chemiosmotic gradients
J- Shape and Forms of Eukaryotic Cells

Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.

What are enzymes??

Enzymes are an organic chemical consisting of carbon and hydrogen.  They are made up of chains of proteins that are folded differently. By having enzymes, they can catalyze biochemical reactions without changing any of the surroundings.  When speeding up chemical reactions enzymes do not change and therefore are reusable.  Think of an enzyme as a painter stirrer. To get orange paint you put yellow and red paint together. Instead of just adding the two different color of paints and waiting for it to become orange, you can use the paint stirrer to speed up the process of mixing the two items.  When you take the stirrer out of the paint and wash it, you can reuse it to stir other continents for the same effect.

What elements can effect enzymes??

Enzymes can be denatured or no longer work.  There are only a few exceptions when they no longer work.  They can no longer work in different pH surroundings then they are used to.  For example, the pH is your stomache is different from the pH in your mouth, so when an enzyme from your stomach some how gets into your mouth, it will no longer work.  Another way an enzyme is denatured is because of the temperature.  Thermal energy can break down the hydrogen bond that holds the structure of enzymes together making it no longer work. 

Ionic conditions dealing with enzymes

Some enzymes need an additional chemical component called an cofactor.  A cofactor is a direct participate in the speeding up process of an enzyme and is thus required. A cofactor can either be one of two items: an organic molecule or an inorganic metal ions.  The complete enzyme with its cofactor is called a holoenzyme while just the protein part is called the apoenzyme.  Without having the cofactor or the ion part of the enzyme the enzyme will not be able to work causing it to be denatured.

Enzymes and the Equilibrium

Equilbrium is when two opposing reactions go at the same rate which makes there no net charge. When enzymes are added to the reactions it doesn't make the rate different.  Enzymes keeps both reactors at the same rate making sure there is no change to the equilbrium.