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Biology Cell Class Project

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) ang Golgi Apparatus and Their Functions

Home
A-Semipermeable Membranes
B-Enzymes
C- Cells and Viruses
D- Molecular Biology
E- E.R. and Golgo Appartus
F- Photosynthesis
G- Mitochondria
H- Macromolecules
I- Chemiosmotic gradients
J- Shape and Forms of Eukaryotic Cells
Bibliography

Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum
 
The Endoplasmic Recticulum (ER) is a network of tubes and flattened sacs made of membranes. The ER has many impotant functions such as the division of the cytoplasm outside of the ER and the cytoplasm inside the sacs and channels of the ER. It can isolate disruptive material that might affect the cell in one way or another and it provides a passage to move materials from the nucelus to the cytoplasm and to the plasma membrane. 
 
The Two Types of ER
 
Rough ER- has ribosomes stuck to the surface of it causing the surface to appear rough and bumpy. They make and export the proteins because of the ribosomes on them and the passage way they have.  Not all ribosomes are on the ER. The ribosomes that are attached to the ER all make proteins that goes through the ER channels and made into vesicles.
 
Smooth ER- Is smooth because there are no ribosomes stuck to it.  This is the site of non-protein synthesis such as lipids, hormones, or carbohydrates.

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Golgi Apparatus
 
Is an organelle that is a flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies the proteins.  The ER gives the Golgi appartus the proteins that were made fron the ribosomes on it.  The Golgi's job is to then sort out the proteins and make them into packages of membrane bound structures called vesicles.  After being packed into vesicles they are shipped into their appropiate destination.

Shipping Out Proteins
 
The ER recieves the proteins from the rough part of the ER and uses its passage ways to ship it to the Golgi apparatus.  There the proteins are sorted out and made into packages called the vesicles and are shipped to the appropiate destination.  In a way the golgi apparatus is like the post office because they have to sort of the packages that were given to them by the people (or in the cell's case the ER). After recieving the packages, they have to rearrange them and make sure that the letters get to their appropiate address or destination.