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Biology Cell Class Project


A-Semipermeable Membranes
C- Cells and Viruses
D- Molecular Biology
E- E.R. and Golgo Appartus
F- Photosynthesis
G- Mitochondria
H- Macromolecules
I- Chemiosmotic gradients
J- Shape and Forms of Eukaryotic Cells

Students know usuable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar and carbon dioxide.

Photosynthesis is when light is used to make organic molecules. Light is used to make food for plants. The equation for photosynthesis is co2+h2o+energy-->c6h12o6+o2. This equations basically means sunlight-->glucose+oxygen.
There are the units that are founded in chloroplasts and are membrane-bounded closed sacs.
A supportive structure or a solution of enzymes and small molecules that are leaked out if a chloroplast is broken.
Calvin Cycle
Is the second phase of photosynthesis and it is a series of reactions that use carbon dioxide to from sugars.  It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast.
Thylakoid Membrane
Holds the electron tansport chain which is a series of proteins.
Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
How Energy Is Made
Light-dependent reactions convert light energy into chemical energy.  The molecules of ATP, which is adenosince triphosphate which is stored in the chemical bonds of a molecule and can be used quickly and easily by the cell,  produced in the light-dependent reactions are then used to fuel the light-independent reactions that produce simple sugars. Chloroplast is the cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs in. In the thylakoid disks in the chloroplasts the light-dependent reaction takes place to form the simple sugars.  The thylakoid membrane contains pigments which absorb the sunlight and are in clusters called photosystems.  Chlorophyll is the most common photosystem. The sun transfers energy to the chlorophyll which passes its energy down the electron transport chain and the electron provide energy to form ATP.  This is the first part of photosynthesis. The second part has to do with the Calvin cycle which takes place in the cytoplasm.  The Calvin cycle is a series of reactions that use carbon dioxide to form sugars